metallurgical coal vs thermal coal environment

He said that Australian coal was exported with around 9 to 10 per cent moisture, whereas Indonesian coal would have around 30 per cent moisture. However, Mr Turnbull asserted that Australian coal was "by and large" cleaner than the coal from other countries. Bill Koppe, an adjunct professor in the school of earth sciences at the University of Queensland told Fact Check the focus on emissions related to thermal coal. It is not suitable for the export market and is used to generate power for the Australian domestic market. "These high quality coals produce fewer emissions per unit of electricity produced and command a higher price in export markets," she said. He said the ash content of Australian coal varied between eight per cent and 20 per cent, so not all Australian coal was cleaner but on average it was. Tim Buckley, an energy financial analyst with independent energy think tank the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, told Fact Check that thermal coal was the most relevant to electricity markets and represented around 80 per cent of the world's coal use. Coal also contains sulphur, which forms sulphur dioxide when burnt, resulting in acid rain and soot particles, which cause smog. However, Professor Koppe said total emissions from transporting coal was "fairly insignificant", accounting for just 1.5 per cent of total emissions, according to a CSIRO lifecycle analysis. Australia is the second largest coal exporter in the world after Indonesia. There are two kinds of black coal: thermal coal, and metallurgical or coking coal. There are two types of bituminous coal: thermal and metallurgical. This service may include material from Agence France-Presse (AFP), APTN, Reuters, AAP, CNN and the BBC World Service which is copyright and cannot be reproduced. Met coal does exist in other places but is most abundantly produced in those three countries. Source: Department of Industry, Coal in India, 2015. Energy content is measured in kilocalories, with brown coal generating the least energy and anthracite the most: More polluting emissions are generated from burning low energy coals because greater quantities are needed to get the same amount of electricity as higher-energy coals. "But in fact it's not really clean coal - it's the amount of coal burnt for the required amount of energy is less if you use Australian coal because the ash content is lower, which means you burn less coal, which means you put less CO2 into the atmosphere," he said. Mr Buckley told Fact Check that while Australia's coal had traditionally been of a higher energy value, and therefore higher quality, new coal mines being developed in the Galilee Basin in Queensland would produce lower energy coal. Let's dig beneath the surface to show what we can uncover. Different types of coal and their uses. Metallurgical or coking coal has a higher energy content and lower moisture and is used to make iron, steel and other metals. Professor Koppe told Fact Check that in terms of carbon emissions, the most important aspect of coal was moisture content, and to a lesser extent, ash. Steam coal is primarily used to produce heat and, ultimately, electricity. Trains that run on steam sometimes are fueled with "bit coal," a nickname for bituminous coal. He said Adani's Carmichael mine in the north Galilee Basin will produce coal with an energy value of 4,950 kcal and 25 per cent raw ash. "Normally most Australian mines would wash thermal coal to get the ash down to something like 13 to 14 per cent," he said. (Department of Industry, Innovation and Science) Privacy Policy, Terms of Use & Legal Disclaimer. There are a lot of things not to like about coal. Daniel Roberts, research group leader at CSIRO Energy's high efficiency thermal and electrochemical technologies told Fact Check washing increased the energy density and thus the price of coal but even if other countries washed their coal, it would not necessarily bring its quality up to the standard of Australian coal. Transport of coal is another contributor to carbon emissions - the longer distance the coal has to be transported, the more carbon emissions associated with it. A 2006 study conducted by the CSIRO for Australian coal producers showed that Australian thermal coals had lower levels of arsenic, selenium, mercury and boron compared with international coal samples.

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