Make the cut … Make the cut … less) parallel to the branch angle, along the stem of the tree. A proper pruning cut does not damage either the branch bark ridge or the branch collar. For smaller branches: While reducing and shaping the smaller branches and limbs, cut ¼ inch above the bud at a 45-degree angle. branch angle, along the stem of the tree. A proper cut begins just outside the branch bark ridge and angles down away from the stem of the tree, avoiding injury to the branch collar (Fig. 6B). If a strong primary branch is established while the tree is young, the need for corrective measures reduces with time. A proper cut begins just outside the branch . Excessive leader growth which detracts from the desired symmetry of the tree can be remedied through pruning of the terminal leader or basal pruning. A proper pruning cut does not damage either the branch bark ridge or the branch collar. Both types of cuts are used in pruning fruit trees and grapes. 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